Updated: Jan 4
The difference(s) between sales and marketing. What every salesperson must know. How they should work closely together but don't.
Suspects → Prospects or Leads → Opportunities or Deals → Customers
Sales is a part of the marketing discipline yet emerged into a different field unto itself.
What is Marketing?
Marketing is the set of activities involved in the first conversion above.
Following the STP process, products and services are defined and developed as part of a #marketingmix that best addresses the needs of the target segments.
What is Sales?
Sales is the set of activities involved in the next two conversions above.
MQLs, SALs, and SQLs
The handoffs of prospects or leads between marketing and sales happen as follows.
First, marketing runs campaigns to generate marketing qualified leads or MQLs from suspects.
MQLs are prospects or leads who have interacted with marketing content in the form of physical brochures or the website.
A typical example is when someone sees your company’s Google Ad online and by clicking on it visit a landing page on your website where they fill out and submit a contact form or a lead form.
Next, marketing passes on the MQLs to sales. Sales does a visual checking to either accept or reject them based on pre-defined criteria. Accepted MQLs are called sales accepted leads or SALs.
Next, sales works on the SALs to qualify them. After qualification, the SALs are called sales qualified leads or SQLs.
The rejected MQLs and SALs that do not convert into SQLs are worked on again by marketing, this time through long-term nurturing campaigns.
Long-term nurturing includes email marketing and remarketing campaigns in digital marketing.
TOFU, MOFU, and BOFU
In the marketing and sales conversion process above, not all suspects you start off with convert into customers. There will be a gradual drop off in number through the various stages of the process.
The reduction in the count is best conveyed visually through an “inverted funnel” representation of the process called the marketing and sales funnel.
Suspects enter the top of the funnel (TOFU). A lesser count of prospects or leads enters the middle of the funnel (MOFU). An even lesser count of opportunities enters the bottom of the funnel (BOFU).
It must be evident now that marketing works on suspects in TOFU whereas sales works on prospects or leads in MOFU and opportunities in BOFU.
The Buyer’s Journey
Although we converted the marketing and sales conversion process into a marketing and sales funnel above, the funnel is also called the customer funnel.
The inverted customer funnel essentially represents prospective customers’ readiness to conduct a sales transaction. A lesser number “exit” the funnel at the bottom than those who “enter” at the top.
The customers who conduct the sales transaction in the end go through a cognitive journey themselves. This is known as the buyer’s journey.
The classic A-I-D-A model best describes this journey a buyer takes.
A. First, the buyer becomes AWARE of the problem they have.
I. Next, the buyer shows INTEREST in exploring alternative approaches to solving their problem.
D. Next, the buyer expresses a DESIRE in some specific solution(s) or offering(s) to their problem.
A. Finally, the buyer takes ACTION in purchasing or buying the solution(s) to their problem.
This understanding of the buyer’s journey informs the approach that marketing and sales must take in the various stages of the marketing and sales conversion process or funnel.
In TOFU, for instance, buyers need to become aware of their business problems that your product or service addresses. Therefore, marketing develops appropriate content to educate them.
Typical top of the funnel educational content that marketing builds and makes available on its company website includes blogs, articles, videos, infographics, and FAQs.
Two Sides of a Coin -- Must Work Closely But Don't
In theory, sales is a part of the marketing discipline.
Marketing literature includes personal selling in marketing communications along with direct marketing, advertising, sales promotions, and public relations.
In practice though, because of the specialty required, sales has evolved into a discipline unto itself and is organized into a separate function from marketing within companies.
This is especially the case in B2B sales.
In the overall conversion process, leads is where the two functions overlap and are often at loggerheads in any company. They rarely agree on the quantity or quality of leads.